Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity : Current Status, Consequences and Prevention

Debasis Bagchi


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Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity: Current Status, Consequences and Prevention, Second Edition examines the current childhood obesity epidemic, outlines the consequences of this crisis, and develops strategies to forestall and prevent it. This book provides a thorough investigation of the causes of childhood obesity and, more importantly, offers specific prevention strategies that can be used by medical and mental health professionals, policymakers, community organizers, and individuals. New chapters on BMI and cardiovascular disease, exercise, neurotransmitters, neurocognition, nutrigenomics and combined prevention strategies are included, making this a solid introduction on the childhood obesity crisis. Researchers, practitioners, and advanced students in public health, health policy, and health economics, as well those working in medicine, pharmacy, nutrition, school health, physiology, and neuroscience related to obesity will find this to be a comprehensive resource. Covers the multifaceted factors contributing to the rapidly growing childhood obesity epidemic Includes new chapters on BMI and cardiovascular disease, exercise, neurotransmitters, self-regulation, and prevention strategies Examines strategies for childhood obesity prevention and treatment, such as physical activity and exercise, personalized nutrition plans, and school and community involvement

Table of Contents

Front Cover

pp Intro-ii; 3 pages

Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity: Current Status, Consequences and Prevention

pp iii-iii; 1 page


pp iv-iv; 1 page


pp v-vi; 2 pages


pp vii-xii; 6 pages


pp xiii-xvi; 4 pages


pp xvii-xviii; 2 pages



Part I: Epidemiology and Prevalence

pp 1-94; 94 pages

Chapter 1: Salient Features on Child Obesity from the Viewpoint of a Nutritionist


1.1. Genetic and Family Aspects


1.2. Influence of Family Life


1.3. Importance of Cognitive Restraint in Children


1.4. Factors Interfering With Cognitive Restraint


1.5. Mother-Child Relationship


1.6. Parental Style


1.7. Obesity and Eating Disorders


1.8. Physical Activity


1.9. Strategies


1.10. The Place of Parents


1.11. Conclusion




Chapter 2: Developmental Trajectories of Weight Status in Childhood and Adolescence


2.1. Tracking of Weight Status in Childhood and Adolescence


2.2. Normative Growth Curve Methods


2.3. Nonnormative Growth Curve Methods


2.4. Distinct Trajectories of Weight Status


2.5. Predictors of Trajectory Membership


2.6. Conclusion




Suggested Readings


Chapter 3: Nursing Perspective on Childhood Obesity


3.1. Introduction


3.2. Factors Influencing Obesity


3.2.1. Genetics and Family


3.2.2. Lifestyle and Environment


3.2.3. Cultural Beliefs


3.3. Identification of At-Risk Children


3.4. Measurement Tools


3.5. Impact of Childhood Obesity


3.5.1. Obesity-Related Comorbid Conditions in Children


3.6. Nurse's Role in Prevention and Treatment Implementation


3.6.1. Prevention


3.6.2. Treatment Options


3.7. Lifestyle Changes


3.7.1. Nutrition


3.7.2. Physical Activity


3.7.3. Pharmacologic Treatment Options


3.7.4. Surgical Weight Loss Options


3.8. Nurses as Advocates for Childhood Obesity Policy


3.9. Barriers to Successful Treatment


3.9.1. Provider Barriers and Health Care Bias


3.9.2. Parent Perception of Child's Weight


3.9.3. Language and Cultural Barriers


3.10. Conclusion




Further Reading


Chapter 4: Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: An Emerging Epidemic Among Obese Youth


4.1. Introduction


4.2. Global T2D Prevalence Reports


4.3. Additional T2D Reports From Centers and Unique Populations


4.4. Prediabetes Prevalence in Youth


4.5. Center-Based Studies and Unique Populations


4.6. Longitudinal Studies in Adults


4.7. Longitudinal Studies in Youth


4.8. American Diabetes Association Guidelines for Screening


4.9. Risk Factors Identified for Pediatric T2D


4.9.1. Family History


4.9.2. Insulin Resistance


4.9.3. Race/Ethnicity


4.9.4. Gender


4.9.5. Obesity


4.9.6. Maternal Diabetes


4.9.7. Acanthosis Nigricans


4.9.8. Elevated Waist Circumference


4.9.9. Weight Gain


4.9.10. Presentation


4.10. Screening for T2D in Primary Care


4.11. Complications of T2D


4.12. Follow-Up for Youth With T2D


4.13. Prevention


4.14. Conclusions and Suggested Approaches to Screening


4.15. Identified Risk Factors for T2D


4.16. Which Tests to Use?


4.17. Diabetes


4.18. Hyperlipidemia


4.19. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease


4.20. How Often to Test?


4.21. Conclusion




Chapter 5: Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in US Youth


5.1. Introduction


5.2. Estimating the Population-Based Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents


5.3. NHANES III Prevalence Estimates


5.4. Later NHANES Prevalence Estimates


5.5. Other Regional-Based Sample Estimates


5.6. Ethnicity and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome


5.7. Pathophysiology and Secular Trends


5.8. Future Projections


5.9. Conclusion




Chapter 6: Childhood Obesity: Exercise Physiologists' Perspective*


6.1. Introduction


6.1.1. Limited Physical Activity for the Sake of Convenience Causes the Spread of Obesity


6.1.2. Obesogenic Environment Promotes Childhood Obesity


6.2. How Physically Active Today's Children?


6.3. Physical Activity Levels During Childhood and Adolescence Soundly Affect Overall Health During Adulthood


6.4. Physical Activity Can Prevent Developing T2DM Among Obese Children and Adolescents


6.5. Physical Activity Reduces Obesity, Reverses IR, and Attenuates T2DM


6.6. Weight Loss Is Not Essential in Managing T2DM


6.7. Physical Activity and Healthy Weight Management Improve Endocrinal Functions


6.8. Parents Physical Activity Levels Influence on Obesity in Successive Generations


6.9. Physical Activity During Pregnancy Prevents Childhood Obesity and Early Onset of T2DM


6.10. Physical Activity Reduces Obesity-Related Cardiovascular Disease Development


6.11. Physical Activity Reduces Adiposity and Its Related Factors for CVD Development


6.12. Physical Activity Improves Dyslipidemia Among Obese Children


6.13. Physical Activity Improves Obesity-Related Hypertension Among Children


6.14. Physical Activity Reduces Obesity Induced Inflammatory Condition


6.15. Activeness is the Best Medicine to Prevent Obesity and Its Complications


6.16. Physical Activity Improves Another CVD Associated Factor, Physical Fitness


6.17. How Much Should Children Be Physically Active?


6.18. Summary




Chapter 7: Trends and Contemporary Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in US Childhood Obesity


7.1. Introduction


7.2. Data and Methods


7.3. The 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health


7.4. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


7.4.1. Statistical Analysis


7.5. Results


7.5.1. Trends in Obesity and Overweight Prevalence


7.5.2. Disparities in Socioeconomic Conditions and Obesity-Related Behaviors


7.5.3. Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity and Overweight Risks


7.6. Conclusions


Financial Disclosure




Part II: Pathophysiology

pp 95-222; 128 pages

Chapter 8: A Prospective View: Child Obesity Starts From the Mother's Womb


8.1. Introduction


8.2. Background on Factors of Child Obesity


8.3. Involvement of Genetics in Child Obesity


8.4. Factors Involved During Fetal Life (Nutritional)


8.4.1. The Predictive Adaptive Response


8.4.2. Undernutrition of Pregnant Women


8.4.3. Hypercaloric Nutrition of Mothers in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy


8.4.4. High-Fat Diet in Pregnancy


8.4.5. Excessive Protein Intake by Pregnant Women


8.4.6. Leptin Level in Early Life


8.4.7. Junk Food Intake During Pregnancy


8.4.8. Intake of Dietary Toxic Substances in Pregnant Women


8.5. Factors Involved During Fetal Life (Nonnutritional)


8.5.1. Mother's Weight at the Beginning and at the End of Pregnancy


8.5.2. Pregnant Women Who Smoke


8.5.3. Pathologies in Pregnant Women


8.5.4. Hidden Chemicals That Trigger Obesity During Pregnancy


8.5.5. Prevention of Child Obesity Before Birth


8.5.6. Change the Attitude, Change the Trend


8.6. Conclusion




Further Reading


Chapter 9: The Social, Cultural, and Familial Contexts Contributing to Childhood Obesity


9.1. Introduction


9.2. Cultures and Childhood


9.3. Cultured Bodies in a Global Context


9.4. Energy in, Energy Out: Food Consumption and Physical Activity


9.5. Culinary Cultures


9.6. Activities and Leisure


9.7. Modern Sociocultural Trends Influencing Children's Body Weight


9.8. Familial Contexts of Childhood Weight


9.9. Conclusion: Intervening in Sociocultural and Familial Contexts




Chapter 10: Cardiovascular Risk Clustering in Obese Children


10.1. Pathophysiology of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Childhood


10.1.1. Cardiovascular Manifestations of Obesity and Insulin Resistance


10.2. Defining the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Children


10.3. Clinical Relevance


10.4. Conclusion




Chapter 11: A Link Between Maternal and Childhood Obesity


11.1. Background


11.2. Obesity and the Family


11.2.1. Body Mass Index


11.2.2. Overweight and Obesity


11.3. The Genetic Basis of Childhood Obesity


11.3.1. Evidence of Heritability of Body Composition


11.3.2. Genetic Makeup and Predisposition to Gain Weight


11.3.3. Epigenetic Modification


11.4. The Role of the Prenatal Environment


11.4.1. Maternal Obesity


11.4.2. Gestational Weight Gain


11.4.3. The Fetal Overnutrition Hypothesis


11.5. Maternal Obesity and the Postnatal Environment


11.5.1. Shared Dietary Habits


11.5.2. Shared Patterns of Physical Activity


11.5.3. Maternal Obesity and Breastfeeding


11.6. The Link Between Maternal Obesity and Child Obesity: Public Health Implications


11.6.1. Effects of Maternal Obesity on Future Generations


11.6.2. Developmental Perspectives and Prevention of Childhood Obesity


11.6.3. Implications for Advice to Young Women




Chapter 12: Pathways Leading to Child Obesity: An Overview


12.1. What Is Childhood Obesity?


12.2. Causes


12.3. Factors That Contribute to the Rise in Obesity Prevalence


12.3.1. Environmental Factors


12.3.2. Diet Content


12.3.3. Fast Food


12.3.4. Reduction in Physical Activity


12.3.5. Mutation in Genes


12.4. General Mechanism for Food Digestion


12.5. Central Control of Appetite and Energy Expenditure


12.6. Signaling Pathways in the Hypothalamus


12.7. Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ


12.7.1. Neuropeptide Effectors


12.7.2. Endogenous Cannabinoids


12.7.3. Sympathetic Nervous System


12.7.4. Ghrelin


12.7.5. Leptin


12.7.6. Visfatin


12.7.7. Apelin


12.7.8. Resistin


12.7.9. Adiponectin


12.8. Conclusions




Further Reading


Chapter 13: Sleep and Obesity in Children and Adolescents


13.1. Introduction


13.2. Prevalence of Obesity and Short Sleep in Children and Adolescents


13.2.1. Prevalence of Obesity


13.2.2. Prevalence of Short Sleep


13.3. Epidemiologic Evidence of a Link Between Sleep Loss and Obesity


13.4. Epidemiology Studies Adopting Self-Reported Sleep Duration


13.4.1. Epidemiologic Studies in Children


13.4.2. Epidemiologic Studies in Adolescents


13.5. Epidemiologic Studies Adopting Objectively Measured Sleep Duration


13.5.1. Epidemiologic Studies in Children


13.5.2. Epidemiologic Studies in Adolescents


13.6. Sleep Quality and Obesity Risk


13.7. Laboratory Evidence for a Link Between Sleep Loss and Obesity


13.8. Putative Mechanisms Linking Sleep Loss and the Risk of Weight Gain and Obesity


13.8.1. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balance and the Potential Impact of Sleep Loss


13.8.2. Energy Expenditure and the Potential Impact of Sleep Loss


13.8.3. Behavior and the Potential Impact of Sleep Loss


13.9. Sleep Disorders and Obesity in Children


13.10. Conclusion




Chapter 14: Children Obesity, Glucose Tolerance, Ghrelin, and Prader Willi Syndrome


14.1. Introduction


14.2. Clinical Features of PWS: Childhood-Onset Obesity, Body Composition, and Hyperphagia


14.3. Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in PWS


14.4. Ghrelin and Obestatin Regulation


14.5. Ghrelin and Obestatin Regulation in PWS


14.6. PWS, Glucose Metabolism, and Ghrelin System: What Is the Link?


14.7. Are the New Therapies Effective on Ghrelin in PWS?


14.8. Conclusions




Chapter 15: Insulin Resistance in Pediatric Obesity-Physiological Effects and Possible Diet Treatment


15.1. Introduction


15.2. Fat Storage and Fat Metabolism-The Role of Insulin


15.3. Regulation of Entrance of Fatty Acids Into Mitochondria


15.4. Measuring Insulin Function


15.5. Insulin Resistance and Weight Gain


15.6. Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children


15.7. Why Insulin Sensitizing Increases Weight


15.8. Diet Studies on Children


15.8.1. GI-Diet Studies in Children


15.8.2. Low-Carbohydrate Diet Studies in Children


15.9. Health Aspects of a Low Carbohydrate Diet


15.10. The Insulin System in an Evolutionary Perspective


15.11. ``Amalgamation´´




Chapter 16: Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children


16.1. Introduction


16.2. Pathogenesis


16.2.1. The Genetics


16.2.2. The Lipid Partitioning


16.2.3. The Diagnosis


16.2.4. Treatment


16.3. Conclusions




Further Reading


Part III: Psychological and Behavioral Factors

pp 223-236; 14 pages

Chapter 17: Role of Peptides, Biogenic Amines and Hypothalamic Drive in Dietary-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome


17.1. Introduction


17.2. The Metabolic Syndrome


17.2.1. Definition


17.2.2. Inflammatory Mediators in MetS


17.3. Hypothalamic Appetite Regulation


17.3.1. Pleasure/Reward Pathways


17.4. Role of Adipokines in Dietary-Induced Obesity


17.4.1. Dysregulation of Adipokines/Chemokines in Obesity


17.4.2. Leptin


17.4.3. Adiponectin


17.5. Role of Gastrointestinal Peptides in Dietary-Induced Obesity


17.5.1. Apelin


17.5.2. Orexins


17.5.3. Ghrelin


17.6. Relation Between the Level of Biogenic Amines at Hypothalamus and Feeding Behavior


17.6.1. Serotonergic System in Relation to Food Intake and Satiety


17.6.2. Adrenergic System in Relation to Food Intake and Satiety


17.6.3. Histamine in Relation to Food Intake and Satiety


17.6.4. Dopamine in Relation to Food Intake and Satiety


17.7. Neuropeptide Y in Relation to Obesity


17.8. Treatment of Dietary-Induced Obesity


17.8.1. Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Treatment


17.9. Future Aspects




Further Reading


Part IV: Consequences

pp 237-268; 32 pages

Chapter 18: Childhood Obesity: Can Public Policy Make a Difference?


18.1. Incidence of Child Obesity: United States and Globally


18.1.1. Global Trends


18.2. Health Effects and Medical Treatment


18.2.1. Medical Treatment: Costs and Efficacy


18.3. Causal Factors


18.3.1. Personal Responsibility


18.3.2. Obesogenic Environment


18.4. US Solutions in Practice


18.4.1. Labeling Policies


18.4.2. Tax/Subsidy Policies


18.4.3. Competitive Foods/School-Based Policies


18.5. Conclusion: Concerted Policy Efforts Needed




Chapter 19: Bone Health in Obesity and the Cross Talk Between Fat and Bone


19.1. Introduction


19.2. Bone Mineral Density as a Surrogate Marker for Bone Strength


19.3. Relation of Bone Mass to Body Weight


19.4. Fat Mass or Lean Mass: What Influences Bone Mass?


19.5. Bone Mass in Obese Children


19.6. BMD and Fracture Risk in Diabetes


19.7. Vitamin D


19.8. Bone and Energy Metabolism


19.8.1. Adipocyte-Derived Hormones (Adipokines)


19.8.2. Pancreatic Hormones


19.8.3. Other Hormones


19.9. Conclusion




Chapter 20: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children with Obesity


20.1. Introduction


20.2. Epidemiology


20.2.1. Prevalence Estimates


20.2.2. Histological Characteristics


20.2.3. Sex


20.2.4. Age


20.2.5. Race/Ethnicity


20.2.6. Disease Correlates


20.2.7. Complications


20.3. Pathogenesis


20.3.1. Introduction


20.3.2. Hepatic Steatosis


20.3.3. Steatosis to Steatohepatitis


20.3.4. New Insights in Pathogenesis


20.4. Diagnosis


20.4.1. Serum Biomarkers


20.4.2. Radiological Imaging


20.4.3. Liver Biopsy


20.5. Treatment


20.5.1. Lifestyle Intervention


20.5.2. Pharmacological Therapies


20.6. Conclusion




Part V: Prevention and Treatment

pp 269-398; 130 pages

Chapter 21: Childhood Obesity: Factors, Consequences and Intervention


21.1. Introduction


21.2. Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity


21.3. Consequences of Childhood Obesity


21.4. Interventions in Preventing and Managing Childhood Obesity


21.5. Conclusion






Further Reading


Chapter 22: Parks and Recreation: Centers for Eating and Physical Activity Behavior Interventions


22.1. Introduction


22.2. Commit to Health


22.2.1. Foods of the Month


22.2.2. Community and Home Gardening Programming


22.3. Methods


22.3.1. Evaluation Design and Participants


22.3.2. Measures and Instruments


22.3.3. Data Analysis


22.4. Results


22.4.1. Summer 2014


22.4.2. Summer 2015


22.4.3. Summer 2016


22.4.4. Summer 2017


22.5. Discussion


22.6. Conclusion




Further Reading


Chapter 23: A Community-Level Perspective for Childhood Obesity Prevention


23.1. Introduction


23.1.1. Defining ``Community´´ and ``Whole-of-Community´´ Interventions


23.2. Theory and Rationale


23.2.1. Ecological Models of Health Behavior


23.2.2. Systems Perspective


23.3. Community-Level Research: Design, Measures, Analysis, and Dissemination


23.3.1. Research Design


23.3.2. Measures


23.3.3. Analysis


23.4. Dissemination


23.5. Community Interventions: Progress and Promise


23.5.1. Pathways (1993-2000)


23.5.2. Shape Up Somerville (2002-05)


23.5.3. Ensemble Prevenons lObesite Des Enfants Study (2004-)


23.5.4. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (2011-15)


23.5.5. BMore Healthy Communities for Kids (2012-16)


23.5.6. Childhood Obesity Modeling for Prevention and Community Transformation (2013-18)


23.6. Discussion


23.7. Conclusion and Future Directions




Chapter 24: Strategies for Prevention of Childhood Obesity


24.1. Introduction


24.2. Immediate and Long-Term Consequences of Childhood Obesity


24.3. Why Is Prevention Important?


24.4. Risk Factors for Pediatric Obesity


24.4.1. Risk Factors in Fetal Life


24.4.2. Role of the Environment


24.5. Primordial and Primary Prevention


24.5.1. Nutrition-Recommendations


24.5.2. Physical Education-Recommendations


24.6. Primary Prevention of Childhood Obesity: Settings and Strategies


24.6.1. Community-Based Interventions


24.7. Preventive Strategies Start In-Utero


24.8. Secondary Prevention


24.8.1. Early Diagnosing Childhood Obesity


24.8.2. Clinical Assessment


24.8.3. Treatment


24.9. Tertiary Prevention


24.10. Childhood Obesity: Experience of the Authors


24.11. Conclusion




Further Reading


Chapter 25: School-Based Obesity Prevention Interventions Show Promising Improvements in the Health and Academic Achievem ...


25.1. Introduction


25.2. Methods


25.2.1. Design


25.2.2. Intervention Components


25.2.3. Dietary Intervention: Provision of Nutrient-Dense Foods That Model Nutrition Lessons


25.2.4. Nutrition and Healthy Living Curricula


25.3. Data Analyses


25.3.1. Measures


25.3.2. Procedures


25.4. Results


25.4.1. All Children


25.4.2. Subsample (USDA Free and Reduced-Price Meals, Children Only)


25.5. Discussion


25.5.1. Strengths


25.5.2. Limitations


25.6. Conclusion




Chapter 26: School and Community-Based Physical Education and Healthy Active Living Programs: Holistic Practices in Hong ...


26.1. Introduction


26.2. Global Epidemic of Obesity


26.3. Epidemic of Childhood Obesity


26.4. Changes and Shifts in Diet and Physical Activity Patterns


26.4.1. Dietary Trends


26.4.2. Physical Inactivity


26.4.3. Screen Time


26.5. An Integrated Approach of Physical Education, Physical Activity, and Wellness in School


26.6. Baptist (Sha Tin Wai) Lui Ming Choi Primary School (Hong Kong-China): A Holistic Approach


26.6.1. Promoting Quality Physical Education


26.6.2. School-Based Physical Activity Opportunities


26.6.3. School Employee Wellness and Family and Community Involvement


26.7. North Vista Primary School (Singapore): The Community of Learners at the School of the Future


26.7.1. Community as Partners, Teachers, and Researchers


26.8. Grundy Center (Iowa, United States) Community Schools/Polar Electro, Inc./University of Northern Iowa: A Partnershi ...


26.8.1. Building a Partnership


26.9. The Innovative Polar Scholars Program


26.9.1. Promoting Leadership in Sports Technology


26.10. Global Forum for Physical Education Pedagogy (2010)


26.11. Conclusion


26.12. Authors Note




Chapter 27: Schools as ``Laboratories´´ for Obesity Prevention: Proven Effective Models


27.1. Introduction


27.1.1. The National Problem: Obesity


27.2. Schools as ``Hubs´´ of Obesity Prevention: A Multilevel, Multiagency Approach


27.2.1. Obesity Prevention Tools for Young Children: The OWG CSP


27.2.2. Maintenance and Sustainability of Obesity Prevention Laboratories Through Strategic Partnerships


27.2.3. Public-Private Partnerships


27.3. Conclusion




Chapter 28: Psychotherapy as an Intervention for Child Obesity


28.1. Obesity: A Disease Put Into Perspective


28.2. Why Do We Need New Treatments?


28.3. Psychodynamic Therapy


28.4. Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies


28.5. Group Therapy


28.6. School-Based Treatments and Prevention


28.7. Early Treatment


28.8. Family Therapy


28.9. Systemic Family Medicine


28.10. Solution-Based Brief Therapy


28.11. Standardized Obesity Family Therapy


28.11.1. SOFT Compared to Other Treatment Models


28.11.2. Research on SOFT


28.12. The Processes in Therapy


28.12.1. Approaching the Family


28.12.2. The Strategy in Therapy


28.12.3. Family Interaction


28.12.4. Practical Approach


28.12.5. The Outlining of the Interview


28.13. A Case


28.14. The Questions Are the Answers


28.14.1. Linear Questions


28.14.2. Circular Questions


28.14.3. Strategic Questions


28.14.4. Reflexive Questions


28.15. Conclusion




Chapter 29: Childhood Obesity and Diabetes: Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics


29.1. Childhood Obesity and Diabetes


29.2. Gut Microbiota and Childhood Obesity


29.2.1. Development of Early Microbiota and the Risk of Obesity


29.3. Gut Microbiota and Diabetes


29.3.1. Type 1 Diabetes and Microbiota


29.3.2. Type 2 Diabetes and Microbiota


29.4. Prevention and Management of Obesity and Diabetes Strategy


29.4.1. Antiobesity and Antidiabetic Effect of Probiotics


29.4.2. Antiobesity and Antidiabetic Effect of Prebiotics


29.5. Safety and Adverse Effects


29.6. Conclusion




Chapter 30: Therapeutic Treatment for Controlling Childhood Obesity


30.1. Introduction


30.2. Orlistat


30.3. Sibutramine


30.4. Metformin


30.5. Phentermine Hydrochloride


30.6. Topiramate


30.7. Metreleptin


30.8. Opportunistic Agents


30.8.1. Octreotide


30.8.2. Leptin


30.8.3. Rimonabant


30.8.4. Cetilistat


30.8.5. Dapagliflozin


30.9. Conclusion




Chapter 31: Treatment of Pediatric Obesity: Past and Present Approaches to Diet and Exercise


31.1. Introduction


31.2. Historical Review of Obesity


31.3. Modern Medical Recommendations


31.3.1. Diet


31.3.2. Exercise


31.3.3. Behavioral Change


31.4. Discussion




Part VI: Commentary and Recommendations

pp 399-452; 54 pages

Chapter 32: Childhood Obesity, Food Choice, and Market Influence


32.1. Introduction: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Then Some, or Small Fries and a Coke Please


32.2. Obesity as a Problem


32.3. What Young People Eat: SoFAAS, Not Fruitn Veg


32.4. Influences on Dietary Consumption


32.5. Mediating Effects on Food Choice


32.6. Recent Steps in the Right Direction


32.7. Conclusion






Chapter 33: The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity


33.1. Children's Media Use Patterns


33.2. The Relationship Between Children's Heavy Media Use and Childhood Overweight


33.3. Mechanisms for Explaining the Association


33.3.1. Media Influence on Physical and Sedentary Activity


33.3.2. Media Influence on Dietary Habits


33.3.3. Media Influence on Sleep Behaviors


33.4. Can Media Be a Part of the Solution?


33.5. Recommendations


33.6. Is There a Role for Public Policy?


33.7. Conclusion




Further Reading


Chapter 34: The Future Directions of Childhood Obesity and Clinical Management


34.1. Introduction


34.2. Knowledge Gap 1: What Is Known, What Do We Do About It, and Where Are the Gaps in Knowledge?


34.2.1. Biologic/Genetic Factors


34.2.2. Physical Activity/Sedentary Time/Screen Time


34.2.3. Nutrition


34.2.4. Psychological


34.2.5. Social/Public Health


34.2.6. Other: Microbiome


34.3. Knowledge Gap 2: Interventions


34.3.1. Behavioral Management


34.3.2. Pharmacotherapy


34.3.3. Bariatric Surgery


34.3.4. Personalized Medicine


34.3.5. Contribution of City Planners and Policy Makers


34.4. Conclusion




Part VII: Health Policies and Interventions

pp 453-472; 20 pages

Chapter 35: Childhood Obesity: Health Policies and Interventions


35.1. Introduction


35.2. What Is Obesity?


35.3. Prevalence of Childhood Obesity


35.4. Etiology of Childhood Obesity


35.4.1. Genetic Makeup


35.4.2. Industrialization


35.5. Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity


35.5.1. Family Food Environment


35.5.2. Socio-Economic Status


35.5.3. Physical Activity


35.5.4. Food Promotions and Advertisements


35.5.5. Technology Use


35.5.6. Sleep


35.5.7. Prenatal and Infant Care


35.6. Consequences of Overweight and Obesity


35.6.1. Mortality


35.6.2. Psychological Effects on Children


35.6.3. Productivity/School Performance


35.6.4. Economic Consequences


35.7. Prevention of Childhood Obesity


35.7.1. Addressing Poor Diet


35.7.2. Addressing Physical Activity


35.7.3. Breastfeeding


35.8. Boys versus Girls


35.9. The Role of Government on Health Issues


35.10. Role of Local Government in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity


35.11. Childhood Obesity Policies


35.11.1. Policy Interventions


35.11.2. Educational/Social Marketing Policies


35.11.3. Food Marketing and Childhood Obesity


35.12. Clinical Interventions


35.12.1. WHO Growth Reference for Overweight and Obesity


35.13. Health Policies in Different Locations


35.13.1. New York and London


35.13.2. Canada and Alaska


35.14. Barriers of Government Interventions


35.15. Cost-Effectiveness of Childhood Obesity Interventions


35.16. Concluding Remarks




Commentary and Future Directions

pp 473-474; 2 pages




pp 475-484; 10 pages

Back Cover

pp 485-485; 1 page

Book Details

Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity
Current Status, Consequences and Prevention
Debasis Bagchi
Elsevier Science & Technology
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Ebook Pub Date
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eBook ISBN
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MEDICAL / Nutrition
MEDICAL / Pediatrics
MEDICAL / Public Health
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