Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity : Current Status, Consequences and Prevention

Debasis Bagchi

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Description

Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity: Current Status, Consequences and Prevention, Second Edition examines the current childhood obesity epidemic, outlines the consequences of this crisis, and develops strategies to forestall and prevent it. This book provides a thorough investigation of the causes of childhood obesity and, more importantly, offers specific prevention strategies that can be used by medical and mental health professionals, policymakers, community organizers, and individuals. New chapters on BMI and cardiovascular disease, exercise, neurotransmitters, neurocognition, nutrigenomics and combined prevention strategies are included, making this a solid introduction on the childhood obesity crisis. Researchers, practitioners, and advanced students in public health, health policy, and health economics, as well those working in medicine, pharmacy, nutrition, school health, physiology, and neuroscience related to obesity will find this to be a comprehensive resource. Covers the multifaceted factors contributing to the rapidly growing childhood obesity epidemic Includes new chapters on BMI and cardiovascular disease, exercise, neurotransmitters, self-regulation, and prevention strategies Examines strategies for childhood obesity prevention and treatment, such as physical activity and exercise, personalized nutrition plans, and school and community involvement

Table of Contents

Front Cover

pp Intro-ii; 3 pages
 

Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity: Current Status, Consequences and Prevention

pp iii-iii; 1 page
 

Copyright

pp iv-iv; 1 page
 

Dedication

pp v-vi; 2 pages
 

Contents

pp vii-xii; 6 pages
 

Contributors

pp xiii-xvi; 4 pages
 

Preface

pp xvii-xviii; 2 pages
 

References

 

Part I: Epidemiology and Prevalence

pp 1-94; 94 pages
 

Chapter 1: Salient Features on Child Obesity from the Viewpoint of a Nutritionist

 

1.1. Genetic and Family Aspects

 

1.2. Influence of Family Life

 

1.3. Importance of Cognitive Restraint in Children

 

1.4. Factors Interfering With Cognitive Restraint

 

1.5. Mother-Child Relationship

 

1.6. Parental Style

 

1.7. Obesity and Eating Disorders

 

1.8. Physical Activity

 

1.9. Strategies

 

1.10. The Place of Parents

 

1.11. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 2: Developmental Trajectories of Weight Status in Childhood and Adolescence

 

2.1. Tracking of Weight Status in Childhood and Adolescence

 

2.2. Normative Growth Curve Methods

 

2.3. Nonnormative Growth Curve Methods

 

2.4. Distinct Trajectories of Weight Status

 

2.5. Predictors of Trajectory Membership

 

2.6. Conclusion

 

References

 

Suggested Readings

 

Chapter 3: Nursing Perspective on Childhood Obesity

 

3.1. Introduction

 

3.2. Factors Influencing Obesity

 

3.2.1. Genetics and Family

 

3.2.2. Lifestyle and Environment

 

3.2.3. Cultural Beliefs

 

3.3. Identification of At-Risk Children

 

3.4. Measurement Tools

 

3.5. Impact of Childhood Obesity

 

3.5.1. Obesity-Related Comorbid Conditions in Children

 

3.6. Nurse's Role in Prevention and Treatment Implementation

 

3.6.1. Prevention

 

3.6.2. Treatment Options

 

3.7. Lifestyle Changes

 

3.7.1. Nutrition

 

3.7.2. Physical Activity

 

3.7.3. Pharmacologic Treatment Options

 

3.7.4. Surgical Weight Loss Options

 

3.8. Nurses as Advocates for Childhood Obesity Policy

 

3.9. Barriers to Successful Treatment

 

3.9.1. Provider Barriers and Health Care Bias

 

3.9.2. Parent Perception of Child's Weight

 

3.9.3. Language and Cultural Barriers

 

3.10. Conclusion

 

References

 

Further Reading

 

Chapter 4: Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: An Emerging Epidemic Among Obese Youth

 

4.1. Introduction

 

4.2. Global T2D Prevalence Reports

 

4.3. Additional T2D Reports From Centers and Unique Populations

 

4.4. Prediabetes Prevalence in Youth

 

4.5. Center-Based Studies and Unique Populations

 

4.6. Longitudinal Studies in Adults

 

4.7. Longitudinal Studies in Youth

 

4.8. American Diabetes Association Guidelines for Screening

 

4.9. Risk Factors Identified for Pediatric T2D

 

4.9.1. Family History

 

4.9.2. Insulin Resistance

 

4.9.3. Race/Ethnicity

 

4.9.4. Gender

 

4.9.5. Obesity

 

4.9.6. Maternal Diabetes

 

4.9.7. Acanthosis Nigricans

 

4.9.8. Elevated Waist Circumference

 

4.9.9. Weight Gain

 

4.9.10. Presentation

 

4.10. Screening for T2D in Primary Care

 

4.11. Complications of T2D

 

4.12. Follow-Up for Youth With T2D

 

4.13. Prevention

 

4.14. Conclusions and Suggested Approaches to Screening

 

4.15. Identified Risk Factors for T2D

 

4.16. Which Tests to Use?

 

4.17. Diabetes

 

4.18. Hyperlipidemia

 

4.19. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

 

4.20. How Often to Test?

 

4.21. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 5: Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in US Youth

 

5.1. Introduction

 

5.2. Estimating the Population-Based Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

 

5.3. NHANES III Prevalence Estimates

 

5.4. Later NHANES Prevalence Estimates

 

5.5. Other Regional-Based Sample Estimates

 

5.6. Ethnicity and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

 

5.7. Pathophysiology and Secular Trends

 

5.8. Future Projections

 

5.9. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 6: Childhood Obesity: Exercise Physiologists' Perspective*

 

6.1. Introduction

 

6.1.1. Limited Physical Activity for the Sake of Convenience Causes the Spread of Obesity

 

6.1.2. Obesogenic Environment Promotes Childhood Obesity

 

6.2. How Physically Active Today's Children?

 

6.3. Physical Activity Levels During Childhood and Adolescence Soundly Affect Overall Health During Adulthood

 

6.4. Physical Activity Can Prevent Developing T2DM Among Obese Children and Adolescents

 

6.5. Physical Activity Reduces Obesity, Reverses IR, and Attenuates T2DM

 

6.6. Weight Loss Is Not Essential in Managing T2DM

 

6.7. Physical Activity and Healthy Weight Management Improve Endocrinal Functions

 

6.8. Parents Physical Activity Levels Influence on Obesity in Successive Generations

 

6.9. Physical Activity During Pregnancy Prevents Childhood Obesity and Early Onset of T2DM

 

6.10. Physical Activity Reduces Obesity-Related Cardiovascular Disease Development

 

6.11. Physical Activity Reduces Adiposity and Its Related Factors for CVD Development

 

6.12. Physical Activity Improves Dyslipidemia Among Obese Children

 

6.13. Physical Activity Improves Obesity-Related Hypertension Among Children

 

6.14. Physical Activity Reduces Obesity Induced Inflammatory Condition

 

6.15. Activeness is the Best Medicine to Prevent Obesity and Its Complications

 

6.16. Physical Activity Improves Another CVD Associated Factor, Physical Fitness

 

6.17. How Much Should Children Be Physically Active?

 

6.18. Summary

 

References

 

Chapter 7: Trends and Contemporary Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in US Childhood Obesity

 

7.1. Introduction

 

7.2. Data and Methods

 

7.3. The 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health

 

7.4. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

 

7.4.1. Statistical Analysis

 

7.5. Results

 

7.5.1. Trends in Obesity and Overweight Prevalence

 

7.5.2. Disparities in Socioeconomic Conditions and Obesity-Related Behaviors

 

7.5.3. Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity and Overweight Risks

 

7.6. Conclusions

 

Financial Disclosure

 

References

 

Part II: Pathophysiology

pp 95-222; 128 pages
 

Chapter 8: A Prospective View: Child Obesity Starts From the Mother's Womb

 

8.1. Introduction

 

8.2. Background on Factors of Child Obesity

 

8.3. Involvement of Genetics in Child Obesity

 

8.4. Factors Involved During Fetal Life (Nutritional)

 

8.4.1. The Predictive Adaptive Response

 

8.4.2. Undernutrition of Pregnant Women

 

8.4.3. Hypercaloric Nutrition of Mothers in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

 

8.4.4. High-Fat Diet in Pregnancy

 

8.4.5. Excessive Protein Intake by Pregnant Women

 

8.4.6. Leptin Level in Early Life

 

8.4.7. Junk Food Intake During Pregnancy

 

8.4.8. Intake of Dietary Toxic Substances in Pregnant Women

 

8.5. Factors Involved During Fetal Life (Nonnutritional)

 

8.5.1. Mother's Weight at the Beginning and at the End of Pregnancy

 

8.5.2. Pregnant Women Who Smoke

 

8.5.3. Pathologies in Pregnant Women

 

8.5.4. Hidden Chemicals That Trigger Obesity During Pregnancy

 

8.5.5. Prevention of Child Obesity Before Birth

 

8.5.6. Change the Attitude, Change the Trend

 

8.6. Conclusion

 

References

 

Further Reading

 

Chapter 9: The Social, Cultural, and Familial Contexts Contributing to Childhood Obesity

 

9.1. Introduction

 

9.2. Cultures and Childhood

 

9.3. Cultured Bodies in a Global Context

 

9.4. Energy in, Energy Out: Food Consumption and Physical Activity

 

9.5. Culinary Cultures

 

9.6. Activities and Leisure

 

9.7. Modern Sociocultural Trends Influencing Children's Body Weight

 

9.8. Familial Contexts of Childhood Weight

 

9.9. Conclusion: Intervening in Sociocultural and Familial Contexts

 

References

 

Chapter 10: Cardiovascular Risk Clustering in Obese Children

 

10.1. Pathophysiology of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Childhood

 

10.1.1. Cardiovascular Manifestations of Obesity and Insulin Resistance

 

10.2. Defining the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Children

 

10.3. Clinical Relevance

 

10.4. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 11: A Link Between Maternal and Childhood Obesity

 

11.1. Background

 

11.2. Obesity and the Family

 

11.2.1. Body Mass Index

 

11.2.2. Overweight and Obesity

 

11.3. The Genetic Basis of Childhood Obesity

 

11.3.1. Evidence of Heritability of Body Composition

 

11.3.2. Genetic Makeup and Predisposition to Gain Weight

 

11.3.3. Epigenetic Modification

 

11.4. The Role of the Prenatal Environment

 

11.4.1. Maternal Obesity

 

11.4.2. Gestational Weight Gain

 

11.4.3. The Fetal Overnutrition Hypothesis

 

11.5. Maternal Obesity and the Postnatal Environment

 

11.5.1. Shared Dietary Habits

 

11.5.2. Shared Patterns of Physical Activity

 

11.5.3. Maternal Obesity and Breastfeeding

 

11.6. The Link Between Maternal Obesity and Child Obesity: Public Health Implications

 

11.6.1. Effects of Maternal Obesity on Future Generations

 

11.6.2. Developmental Perspectives and Prevention of Childhood Obesity

 

11.6.3. Implications for Advice to Young Women

 

References

 

Chapter 12: Pathways Leading to Child Obesity: An Overview

 

12.1. What Is Childhood Obesity?

 

12.2. Causes

 

12.3. Factors That Contribute to the Rise in Obesity Prevalence

 

12.3.1. Environmental Factors

 

12.3.2. Diet Content

 

12.3.3. Fast Food

 

12.3.4. Reduction in Physical Activity

 

12.3.5. Mutation in Genes

 

12.4. General Mechanism for Food Digestion

 

12.5. Central Control of Appetite and Energy Expenditure

 

12.6. Signaling Pathways in the Hypothalamus

 

12.7. Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ

 

12.7.1. Neuropeptide Effectors

 

12.7.2. Endogenous Cannabinoids

 

12.7.3. Sympathetic Nervous System

 

12.7.4. Ghrelin

 

12.7.5. Leptin

 

12.7.6. Visfatin

 

12.7.7. Apelin

 

12.7.8. Resistin

 

12.7.9. Adiponectin

 

12.8. Conclusions

 

References

 

Further Reading

 

Chapter 13: Sleep and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

 

13.1. Introduction

 

13.2. Prevalence of Obesity and Short Sleep in Children and Adolescents

 

13.2.1. Prevalence of Obesity

 

13.2.2. Prevalence of Short Sleep

 

13.3. Epidemiologic Evidence of a Link Between Sleep Loss and Obesity

 

13.4. Epidemiology Studies Adopting Self-Reported Sleep Duration

 

13.4.1. Epidemiologic Studies in Children

 

13.4.2. Epidemiologic Studies in Adolescents

 

13.5. Epidemiologic Studies Adopting Objectively Measured Sleep Duration

 

13.5.1. Epidemiologic Studies in Children

 

13.5.2. Epidemiologic Studies in Adolescents

 

13.6. Sleep Quality and Obesity Risk

 

13.7. Laboratory Evidence for a Link Between Sleep Loss and Obesity

 

13.8. Putative Mechanisms Linking Sleep Loss and the Risk of Weight Gain and Obesity

 

13.8.1. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balance and the Potential Impact of Sleep Loss

 

13.8.2. Energy Expenditure and the Potential Impact of Sleep Loss

 

13.8.3. Behavior and the Potential Impact of Sleep Loss

 

13.9. Sleep Disorders and Obesity in Children

 

13.10. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 14: Children Obesity, Glucose Tolerance, Ghrelin, and Prader Willi Syndrome

 

14.1. Introduction

 

14.2. Clinical Features of PWS: Childhood-Onset Obesity, Body Composition, and Hyperphagia

 

14.3. Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in PWS

 

14.4. Ghrelin and Obestatin Regulation

 

14.5. Ghrelin and Obestatin Regulation in PWS

 

14.6. PWS, Glucose Metabolism, and Ghrelin System: What Is the Link?

 

14.7. Are the New Therapies Effective on Ghrelin in PWS?

 

14.8. Conclusions

 

References

 

Chapter 15: Insulin Resistance in Pediatric Obesity-Physiological Effects and Possible Diet Treatment

 

15.1. Introduction

 

15.2. Fat Storage and Fat Metabolism-The Role of Insulin

 

15.3. Regulation of Entrance of Fatty Acids Into Mitochondria

 

15.4. Measuring Insulin Function

 

15.5. Insulin Resistance and Weight Gain

 

15.6. Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

 

15.7. Why Insulin Sensitizing Increases Weight

 

15.8. Diet Studies on Children

 

15.8.1. GI-Diet Studies in Children

 

15.8.2. Low-Carbohydrate Diet Studies in Children

 

15.9. Health Aspects of a Low Carbohydrate Diet

 

15.10. The Insulin System in an Evolutionary Perspective

 

15.11. ``Amalgamation´´

 

References

 

Chapter 16: Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children

 

16.1. Introduction

 

16.2. Pathogenesis

 

16.2.1. The Genetics

 

16.2.2. The Lipid Partitioning

 

16.2.3. The Diagnosis

 

16.2.4. Treatment

 

16.3. Conclusions

 

References

 

Further Reading

 

Part III: Psychological and Behavioral Factors

pp 223-236; 14 pages
 

Chapter 17: Role of Peptides, Biogenic Amines and Hypothalamic Drive in Dietary-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

 

17.1. Introduction

 

17.2. The Metabolic Syndrome

 

17.2.1. Definition

 

17.2.2. Inflammatory Mediators in MetS

 

17.3. Hypothalamic Appetite Regulation

 

17.3.1. Pleasure/Reward Pathways

 

17.4. Role of Adipokines in Dietary-Induced Obesity

 

17.4.1. Dysregulation of Adipokines/Chemokines in Obesity

 

17.4.2. Leptin

 

17.4.3. Adiponectin

 

17.5. Role of Gastrointestinal Peptides in Dietary-Induced Obesity

 

17.5.1. Apelin

 

17.5.2. Orexins

 

17.5.3. Ghrelin

 

17.6. Relation Between the Level of Biogenic Amines at Hypothalamus and Feeding Behavior

 

17.6.1. Serotonergic System in Relation to Food Intake and Satiety

 

17.6.2. Adrenergic System in Relation to Food Intake and Satiety

 

17.6.3. Histamine in Relation to Food Intake and Satiety

 

17.6.4. Dopamine in Relation to Food Intake and Satiety

 

17.7. Neuropeptide Y in Relation to Obesity

 

17.8. Treatment of Dietary-Induced Obesity

 

17.8.1. Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Treatment

 

17.9. Future Aspects

 

References

 

Further Reading

 

Part IV: Consequences

pp 237-268; 32 pages
 

Chapter 18: Childhood Obesity: Can Public Policy Make a Difference?

 

18.1. Incidence of Child Obesity: United States and Globally

 

18.1.1. Global Trends

 

18.2. Health Effects and Medical Treatment

 

18.2.1. Medical Treatment: Costs and Efficacy

 

18.3. Causal Factors

 

18.3.1. Personal Responsibility

 

18.3.2. Obesogenic Environment

 

18.4. US Solutions in Practice

 

18.4.1. Labeling Policies

 

18.4.2. Tax/Subsidy Policies

 

18.4.3. Competitive Foods/School-Based Policies

 

18.5. Conclusion: Concerted Policy Efforts Needed

 

References

 

Chapter 19: Bone Health in Obesity and the Cross Talk Between Fat and Bone

 

19.1. Introduction

 

19.2. Bone Mineral Density as a Surrogate Marker for Bone Strength

 

19.3. Relation of Bone Mass to Body Weight

 

19.4. Fat Mass or Lean Mass: What Influences Bone Mass?

 

19.5. Bone Mass in Obese Children

 

19.6. BMD and Fracture Risk in Diabetes

 

19.7. Vitamin D

 

19.8. Bone and Energy Metabolism

 

19.8.1. Adipocyte-Derived Hormones (Adipokines)

 

19.8.2. Pancreatic Hormones

 

19.8.3. Other Hormones

 

19.9. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 20: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children with Obesity

 

20.1. Introduction

 

20.2. Epidemiology

 

20.2.1. Prevalence Estimates

 

20.2.2. Histological Characteristics

 

20.2.3. Sex

 

20.2.4. Age

 

20.2.5. Race/Ethnicity

 

20.2.6. Disease Correlates

 

20.2.7. Complications

 

20.3. Pathogenesis

 

20.3.1. Introduction

 

20.3.2. Hepatic Steatosis

 

20.3.3. Steatosis to Steatohepatitis

 

20.3.4. New Insights in Pathogenesis

 

20.4. Diagnosis

 

20.4.1. Serum Biomarkers

 

20.4.2. Radiological Imaging

 

20.4.3. Liver Biopsy

 

20.5. Treatment

 

20.5.1. Lifestyle Intervention

 

20.5.2. Pharmacological Therapies

 

20.6. Conclusion

 

References

 

Part V: Prevention and Treatment

pp 269-398; 130 pages
 

Chapter 21: Childhood Obesity: Factors, Consequences and Intervention

 

21.1. Introduction

 

21.2. Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity

 

21.3. Consequences of Childhood Obesity

 

21.4. Interventions in Preventing and Managing Childhood Obesity

 

21.5. Conclusion

 

Acknowledgment

 

References

 

Further Reading

 

Chapter 22: Parks and Recreation: Centers for Eating and Physical Activity Behavior Interventions

 

22.1. Introduction

 

22.2. Commit to Health

 

22.2.1. Foods of the Month

 

22.2.2. Community and Home Gardening Programming

 

22.3. Methods

 

22.3.1. Evaluation Design and Participants

 

22.3.2. Measures and Instruments

 

22.3.3. Data Analysis

 

22.4. Results

 

22.4.1. Summer 2014

 

22.4.2. Summer 2015

 

22.4.3. Summer 2016

 

22.4.4. Summer 2017

 

22.5. Discussion

 

22.6. Conclusion

 

References

 

Further Reading

 

Chapter 23: A Community-Level Perspective for Childhood Obesity Prevention

 

23.1. Introduction

 

23.1.1. Defining ``Community´´ and ``Whole-of-Community´´ Interventions

 

23.2. Theory and Rationale

 

23.2.1. Ecological Models of Health Behavior

 

23.2.2. Systems Perspective

 

23.3. Community-Level Research: Design, Measures, Analysis, and Dissemination

 

23.3.1. Research Design

 

23.3.2. Measures

 

23.3.3. Analysis

 

23.4. Dissemination

 

23.5. Community Interventions: Progress and Promise

 

23.5.1. Pathways (1993-2000)

 

23.5.2. Shape Up Somerville (2002-05)

 

23.5.3. Ensemble Prevenons lObesite Des Enfants Study (2004-)

 

23.5.4. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (2011-15)

 

23.5.5. BMore Healthy Communities for Kids (2012-16)

 

23.5.6. Childhood Obesity Modeling for Prevention and Community Transformation (2013-18)

 

23.6. Discussion

 

23.7. Conclusion and Future Directions

 

References

 

Chapter 24: Strategies for Prevention of Childhood Obesity

 

24.1. Introduction

 

24.2. Immediate and Long-Term Consequences of Childhood Obesity

 

24.3. Why Is Prevention Important?

 

24.4. Risk Factors for Pediatric Obesity

 

24.4.1. Risk Factors in Fetal Life

 

24.4.2. Role of the Environment

 

24.5. Primordial and Primary Prevention

 

24.5.1. Nutrition-Recommendations

 

24.5.2. Physical Education-Recommendations

 

24.6. Primary Prevention of Childhood Obesity: Settings and Strategies

 

24.6.1. Community-Based Interventions

 

24.7. Preventive Strategies Start In-Utero

 

24.8. Secondary Prevention

 

24.8.1. Early Diagnosing Childhood Obesity

 

24.8.2. Clinical Assessment

 

24.8.3. Treatment

 

24.9. Tertiary Prevention

 

24.10. Childhood Obesity: Experience of the Authors

 

24.11. Conclusion

 

References

 

Further Reading

 

Chapter 25: School-Based Obesity Prevention Interventions Show Promising Improvements in the Health and Academic Achievem ...

 

25.1. Introduction

 

25.2. Methods

 

25.2.1. Design

 

25.2.2. Intervention Components

 

25.2.3. Dietary Intervention: Provision of Nutrient-Dense Foods That Model Nutrition Lessons

 

25.2.4. Nutrition and Healthy Living Curricula

 

25.3. Data Analyses

 

25.3.1. Measures

 

25.3.2. Procedures

 

25.4. Results

 

25.4.1. All Children

 

25.4.2. Subsample (USDA Free and Reduced-Price Meals, Children Only)

 

25.5. Discussion

 

25.5.1. Strengths

 

25.5.2. Limitations

 

25.6. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 26: School and Community-Based Physical Education and Healthy Active Living Programs: Holistic Practices in Hong ...

 

26.1. Introduction

 

26.2. Global Epidemic of Obesity

 

26.3. Epidemic of Childhood Obesity

 

26.4. Changes and Shifts in Diet and Physical Activity Patterns

 

26.4.1. Dietary Trends

 

26.4.2. Physical Inactivity

 

26.4.3. Screen Time

 

26.5. An Integrated Approach of Physical Education, Physical Activity, and Wellness in School

 

26.6. Baptist (Sha Tin Wai) Lui Ming Choi Primary School (Hong Kong-China): A Holistic Approach

 

26.6.1. Promoting Quality Physical Education

 

26.6.2. School-Based Physical Activity Opportunities

 

26.6.3. School Employee Wellness and Family and Community Involvement

 

26.7. North Vista Primary School (Singapore): The Community of Learners at the School of the Future

 

26.7.1. Community as Partners, Teachers, and Researchers

 

26.8. Grundy Center (Iowa, United States) Community Schools/Polar Electro, Inc./University of Northern Iowa: A Partnershi ...

 

26.8.1. Building a Partnership

 

26.9. The Innovative Polar Scholars Program

 

26.9.1. Promoting Leadership in Sports Technology

 

26.10. Global Forum for Physical Education Pedagogy (2010)

 

26.11. Conclusion

 

26.12. Authors Note

 

References

 

Chapter 27: Schools as ``Laboratories´´ for Obesity Prevention: Proven Effective Models

 

27.1. Introduction

 

27.1.1. The National Problem: Obesity

 

27.2. Schools as ``Hubs´´ of Obesity Prevention: A Multilevel, Multiagency Approach

 

27.2.1. Obesity Prevention Tools for Young Children: The OWG CSP

 

27.2.2. Maintenance and Sustainability of Obesity Prevention Laboratories Through Strategic Partnerships

 

27.2.3. Public-Private Partnerships

 

27.3. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 28: Psychotherapy as an Intervention for Child Obesity

 

28.1. Obesity: A Disease Put Into Perspective

 

28.2. Why Do We Need New Treatments?

 

28.3. Psychodynamic Therapy

 

28.4. Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies

 

28.5. Group Therapy

 

28.6. School-Based Treatments and Prevention

 

28.7. Early Treatment

 

28.8. Family Therapy

 

28.9. Systemic Family Medicine

 

28.10. Solution-Based Brief Therapy

 

28.11. Standardized Obesity Family Therapy

 

28.11.1. SOFT Compared to Other Treatment Models

 

28.11.2. Research on SOFT

 

28.12. The Processes in Therapy

 

28.12.1. Approaching the Family

 

28.12.2. The Strategy in Therapy

 

28.12.3. Family Interaction

 

28.12.4. Practical Approach

 

28.12.5. The Outlining of the Interview

 

28.13. A Case

 

28.14. The Questions Are the Answers

 

28.14.1. Linear Questions

 

28.14.2. Circular Questions

 

28.14.3. Strategic Questions

 

28.14.4. Reflexive Questions

 

28.15. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 29: Childhood Obesity and Diabetes: Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics

 

29.1. Childhood Obesity and Diabetes

 

29.2. Gut Microbiota and Childhood Obesity

 

29.2.1. Development of Early Microbiota and the Risk of Obesity

 

29.3. Gut Microbiota and Diabetes

 

29.3.1. Type 1 Diabetes and Microbiota

 

29.3.2. Type 2 Diabetes and Microbiota

 

29.4. Prevention and Management of Obesity and Diabetes Strategy

 

29.4.1. Antiobesity and Antidiabetic Effect of Probiotics

 

29.4.2. Antiobesity and Antidiabetic Effect of Prebiotics

 

29.5. Safety and Adverse Effects

 

29.6. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 30: Therapeutic Treatment for Controlling Childhood Obesity

 

30.1. Introduction

 

30.2. Orlistat

 

30.3. Sibutramine

 

30.4. Metformin

 

30.5. Phentermine Hydrochloride

 

30.6. Topiramate

 

30.7. Metreleptin

 

30.8. Opportunistic Agents

 

30.8.1. Octreotide

 

30.8.2. Leptin

 

30.8.3. Rimonabant

 

30.8.4. Cetilistat

 

30.8.5. Dapagliflozin

 

30.9. Conclusion

 

References

 

Chapter 31: Treatment of Pediatric Obesity: Past and Present Approaches to Diet and Exercise

 

31.1. Introduction

 

31.2. Historical Review of Obesity

 

31.3. Modern Medical Recommendations

 

31.3.1. Diet

 

31.3.2. Exercise

 

31.3.3. Behavioral Change

 

31.4. Discussion

 

References

 

Part VI: Commentary and Recommendations

pp 399-452; 54 pages
 

Chapter 32: Childhood Obesity, Food Choice, and Market Influence

 

32.1. Introduction: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Then Some, or Small Fries and a Coke Please

 

32.2. Obesity as a Problem

 

32.3. What Young People Eat: SoFAAS, Not Fruitn Veg

 

32.4. Influences on Dietary Consumption

 

32.5. Mediating Effects on Food Choice

 

32.6. Recent Steps in the Right Direction

 

32.7. Conclusion

 

Acknowledgment

 

References

 

Chapter 33: The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity

 

33.1. Children's Media Use Patterns

 

33.2. The Relationship Between Children's Heavy Media Use and Childhood Overweight

 

33.3. Mechanisms for Explaining the Association

 

33.3.1. Media Influence on Physical and Sedentary Activity

 

33.3.2. Media Influence on Dietary Habits

 

33.3.3. Media Influence on Sleep Behaviors

 

33.4. Can Media Be a Part of the Solution?

 

33.5. Recommendations

 

33.6. Is There a Role for Public Policy?

 

33.7. Conclusion

 

References

 

Further Reading

 

Chapter 34: The Future Directions of Childhood Obesity and Clinical Management

 

34.1. Introduction

 

34.2. Knowledge Gap 1: What Is Known, What Do We Do About It, and Where Are the Gaps in Knowledge?

 

34.2.1. Biologic/Genetic Factors

 

34.2.2. Physical Activity/Sedentary Time/Screen Time

 

34.2.3. Nutrition

 

34.2.4. Psychological

 

34.2.5. Social/Public Health

 

34.2.6. Other: Microbiome

 

34.3. Knowledge Gap 2: Interventions

 

34.3.1. Behavioral Management

 

34.3.2. Pharmacotherapy

 

34.3.3. Bariatric Surgery

 

34.3.4. Personalized Medicine

 

34.3.5. Contribution of City Planners and Policy Makers

 

34.4. Conclusion

 

References

 

Part VII: Health Policies and Interventions

pp 453-472; 20 pages
 

Chapter 35: Childhood Obesity: Health Policies and Interventions

 

35.1. Introduction

 

35.2. What Is Obesity?

 

35.3. Prevalence of Childhood Obesity

 

35.4. Etiology of Childhood Obesity

 

35.4.1. Genetic Makeup

 

35.4.2. Industrialization

 

35.5. Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity

 

35.5.1. Family Food Environment

 

35.5.2. Socio-Economic Status

 

35.5.3. Physical Activity

 

35.5.4. Food Promotions and Advertisements

 

35.5.5. Technology Use

 

35.5.6. Sleep

 

35.5.7. Prenatal and Infant Care

 

35.6. Consequences of Overweight and Obesity

 

35.6.1. Mortality

 

35.6.2. Psychological Effects on Children

 

35.6.3. Productivity/School Performance

 

35.6.4. Economic Consequences

 

35.7. Prevention of Childhood Obesity

 

35.7.1. Addressing Poor Diet

 

35.7.2. Addressing Physical Activity

 

35.7.3. Breastfeeding

 

35.8. Boys versus Girls

 

35.9. The Role of Government on Health Issues

 

35.10. Role of Local Government in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

 

35.11. Childhood Obesity Policies

 

35.11.1. Policy Interventions

 

35.11.2. Educational/Social Marketing Policies

 

35.11.3. Food Marketing and Childhood Obesity

 

35.12. Clinical Interventions

 

35.12.1. WHO Growth Reference for Overweight and Obesity

 

35.13. Health Policies in Different Locations

 

35.13.1. New York and London

 

35.13.2. Canada and Alaska

 

35.14. Barriers of Government Interventions

 

35.15. Cost-Effectiveness of Childhood Obesity Interventions

 

35.16. Concluding Remarks

 

References

 

Commentary and Future Directions

pp 473-474; 2 pages
 

References

 

Index

pp 475-484; 10 pages
 

Back Cover

pp 485-485; 1 page
 






Book Details

Title
Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity
Subtitle
Current Status, Consequences and Prevention
Edition
2
Editor
Debasis Bagchi
Publisher
Elsevier Science & Technology
Print Pub Date
2019-02-11
Ebook Pub Date
N/A
Language
English
Print ISBN
9780128128404
eBook ISBN
9780128128411
Pages
504
LC Subject Headings
LC Call Number
Dewey Decimal Number
BISAC Subject Headings
MEDICAL / Nutrition
MEDICAL / Pediatrics
MEDICAL / Public Health
Document Type
book